Arterial hypotension – what is it. Causes, Symptoms and Treatment of Low Blood Pressure


Almost everyone knows about the health challenges that arise with high blood pressure, but few are aware of the dangers of low blood pressure. Check out what arterial hypotension is, what types of this disease are distinguished, what are the causes of its occurrence, and how it is recommended to treat it..

What is arterial hypotension

What disease is hidden behind this term? Arterial hypotension is a condition in which a person has significantly reduced blood pressure (more than 20% of the norm), and he feels this condition. Such a diagnosis is made if the patient develops a persistent decrease in the upper (systolic) indicator on the tonometer to 90 mm RT. Art., and the lower (diastolic) – up to 60 mm RT. st.

This condition in some cases may be a variant of the norm. So, low pressure occurs in people who are actively involved in sports. Often this indicator is found in young girls of asthenic physique or in people who are characterized by a sedentary work schedule – for example, office workers. Although the risks of complications from the heart and blood vessels with low blood pressure are much lower than with high blood pressure, it also needs to be corrected to increase work capacity and overall quality of life, and also to reduce the risks of ischemic stroke.

As a disease, low readings on the tonometer should be considered in the presence of additional symptoms – dizziness, general weakness, etc. When a person has constantly low blood pressure, due to the fact that the blood flow is too small to ensure delivery of the necessary amount of nutrients to the internal organs and oxygen, serious malfunctions in the body. Find out what types of hypotension are, and what dangerous consequences low arterial pressure can lead to..

Acute arterial hypotension

This is the name of the condition in which there is a sharp drop in vascular tone, they expand according to the paralytic type. What effect does this have on hypotension? He has brain hypoxia and oxygen starvation in all body systems. The rate of development of acute arterial hypotension is different in different patients, but in each case of such a disease, a doctor’s consultation is required to determine the desired treatment regimen. If this disease is left untreated, a significant decrease in the level of saturation of the body with oxygen will inevitably lead to serious consequences..

Chronic arterial hypotension

With this form of the disease, a person does not particularly feel changes in the functioning of the body because his body has adapted to lower blood pressure. A distinctive feature of chronic arterial hypotension is that with this type of ailment the symptoms are weak, circulatory disorders are almost invisible. Nevertheless, this condition also needs to be corrected by certain changes in the way of life, so that the hypotonic can work productively and be more energetic and successful in different areas.

Primary arterial hypotension

This disease is characterized as a completely independent disease, often it is also called essential hypotension, or hypotonic disease. The cause of primary arterial hypotension is a strong decrease in the activity of the autonomic parts of the nervous system responsible for controlling blood pressure. It is believed that this happens under the influence of prolonged overstrain in the psycho-emotional sphere – with frequent stresses, depression.

Secondary arterial hypotension

This condition is not an independent disease, but a sign of any other pathological or physiological changes in the body. Thus, secondary arterial hypotension often occurs if a person has heart failure, osteochondrosis of the cervical spine, intoxication syndrome (for example, with alcoholism), neurosis, etc. Low blood pressure is often observed in diabetics and pregnant women. In this case, if the factors affecting the blood flow in the vessels cease to act, then the indicators on the tonometer come back to normal.

Arterial hypotension in children

This disease is increasingly manifested at a very young age and in adolescents. Arterial hypotension – what is it in young patients, why does it occur? According to statistics, girls are more prone to this ailment than boys. To date, there are several hypotheses, which is why arterial hypotension develops in children. Most experts are inclined to believe that it occurs due to impaired functioning of the adrenal glands. In practice, the children have a decrease in physical and mental activity, they are poorly adapted to school life.

Arterial hypotension – causes

Although various factors can cause this disease, they are united by the fact that such an effect disrupts the function of the body systems that must control pressure. The main causes of arterial hypotension are as follows:

  • malfunctions of the heart muscle;
  • significant blood loss or dehydration;
  • low tone of arteries;
  • allergy;
  • body poisoning (food, alcohol, nicotine, etc.);
  • hypertension medication overdose.

In some cases, blood pressure can rapidly decrease even from a sharp change in body position – then a person is diagnosed with transient orthostatic or postural hypertension. This is not an independent form of the disease, but a condition. This happens, for example, while taking certain medications in the treatment of other ailments (not hypotension). With the elimination of destructive factors, pressure surges also disappear.

Arterial hypotension – symptoms

How is low blood pressure manifested? Common symptoms of hypotension are:

  • dizziness, drowsiness appears;
  • pulse decreases;
  • mental and physical activity decreases;
  • meteosensitivity is observed, frequent irritability;
  • insomnia appears;
  • hypotonics are often worried about nausea – this is a sign that metabolic products are delayed due to a decrease in blood pressure in the body;
  • in some cases, loss of consciousness due to oxygen starvation of the brain is possible.

Arterial hypotension – treatment

What to do to a person who has been diagnosed with persistent low blood pressure? He must change his daily routine – add moderate physical activity, adjust the mode of work and rest. In some cases, even such simple conservative measures will be enough to restore normal health. For example, during pregnancy, when taking any medications is highly undesirable, physiotherapy, aromatherapy, walks in the fresh air give good results..

If such simple measures do not bring the proper result, it is necessary to begin treatment of arterial hypotension with medications. You need to know that inaction in this case will not only significantly worsen the quality of life every day, but also in the future threatens heart attack and stroke. The specialist, having studied the patient’s condition and medical history, first of all, identifies the reasons why the pressure decreases, and prescribes medications that can eliminate the influence of these destabilizing factors.

Preparations for arterial hypotension

Most drugs designed to increase blood pressure have caffeine in their composition – for example, tablets such as Citramon, Askofen, Cofetamine, etc. If the patient has a decreased concentration as a result of the disease, memory has worsened, the doctor may prescribe nootropic drugs for hypotension and medications that support the functions of the brain: Cavinton, Cinnarizine, Phenibut, Cerebrolysin, etc. Therapy must be taken as directed and under the supervision of a doctor to prevent overdose of the drug and sudden pressure surges.

Treatment of hypotension with folk remedies

A very effective aid for hypotension is a cup of aromatic coffee. Folk remedies for hypotension include the use of these healthy beans and in a different way – as part of a mixture of 50 g of ground roasted coffee, 500 ml of honey and juice of 1 lemon. Such a drug should be taken in 1 tsp. not earlier than 2 hours after eating. They will well raise the general tone of the body:

  • sweet black tea with ginger – it is drunk 3 times during the day for 7-10 days;
  • St. John’s wort infusion – 1 tsp. herbs are poured with 2 glasses of boiling water, insist an hour and taken throughout the day 3 times before meals.