Short-term cessation of blood circulationone of the parts of the brain occurs, usually in elderly people. Although the attack lasts several minutes, and then the circulation is completely normal during the day, it is often a harbinger of stroke. However, many accept this state of manifestation of other diseases.
What is a transient ischemic attack
This disease is called mini-strokes. In neurology illness abbreviated: TIA. Short term accurately reflects the essence of the disease. What is a TIA? Transient ischemic attack. The sudden but transient cardiac arrest in any part of the brain. Transient - means temporary. What is ischemic attack? Ischemia - a partial or complete exsanguination of the tissue, organ.
Transient brain attack is often causedplaques, which are formed from cholesterol on vascular walls. Peel ply clots on the circulatory system and, once in the brain to form a temporary congestion in the arteries.
How to distinguish TIA from a stroke? If caused neurological symptoms persist for longer than 24 hours, it is ischemic attack. If the long day - a stroke.
In the international classification of diseases ICD-10transient ischemic attack type listed under the G45 code. The most important feature of this focal disease: the affected area of the brain tissue does not have time to undergo necrosis (gangrene). Transient brainstorming must necessarily be treated as her almost always follows an ischemic stroke.
The causes of the disease
Transient brain attack - consequences that could push many pathological conditions, diseases, bad habits, leading to a narrowing of the vessel diameter. Among them:
- atherosclerosis of the carotid and vertebral arteries;
- hypertension, arrhythmia;
- smoking, drinking;
- complicated course of pregnancy, obstructed labor;
- head trauma;
- thrombosis, thromboembolism;
- meningitis, encephalitis, arachnoiditis;
- congenital malformations of the brain.
The main signs and symptoms
The brain function of vascular 2Pool: vertebrobasilar and carotid-basilar. Character displays transient ischemic attack depends on blood flow in some broken ones. Carotid (karotis - immersed in a dream) pool formed by the two carotid arteries, the blood-brain washes. They are ignorant manifestations of higher nervous activity, motor function, tactile sensitivity. Transient ischemia in the basin causes a transient symptoms such as:
- limb paralysis, parts or all of the body;
- loss of sensation;
- speech disorders;
- squint, blindness;
- memory loss, the ability to think, read, write.
Vertebra-basilar (vertebro - spinebasilar - basic) pool formed by the two vertebral arteries, the blood washes the brain stem. It regulates the cardiovascular, digestive and respiratory systems, provides orientation in space. Ischemic Attack in the basin can lead to the appearance of these symptoms:
- nausea, vomiting, dizziness, loss of consciousness;
- facial numbness, paralysis of the body;
- loss of sensation;
- "Shifty" eyes;
- violation of the rhythm of breathing.
Methods of diagnosis
Transient cerebral attack has symptoms thateasily mistaken for symptoms of other types of neurological pathologies, so the doctor has to make a differential diagnosis. On many of the signs of TIA are similar:
- amnesia (memory disorder);
- Meniere's (inflammation of the inner ear) disease;
- multiple sclerosis.
If you suspect a TIA diagnosis of this pathologyIt helps to ascertain a comprehensive examination of the patient. Thus, the viscosity of the blood can be measured by its analysis. Signs of arrhythmia ECG reveals, and the presence of blood clots - ultrasound of the heart. Changes in blood flow of intracranial arteries was determined by Doppler. Tomography of the head gives a complete picture of the structure of the brain and identify pockets of tissue damage that transient cerebral attack.
As soon hospitalization is unknown,ischemic brain attack or a stroke patient, emergency medical therapy is performed in full. Surgical intervention is rarely required pathology. Transient brainstorming successfully treated by drugs:
- which reduce blood clotting (heparin, Clexane, then Warfarin, or Sinkumar Fenilin);
- dissolving thrombi (Plasmin, Streptokinase, Urokinase and al.);
- blood thinners (aspirin, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, pentoxifylline);
- dilates blood vessels (papaverine, amyl nitrite, Isoxsuprine);
- improving brain power (Cere, Gliatilin, Cortexin, Aplegin);
- reducing heart rate (Propanorm, amiodarone);
- lowering blood pressure (enalapril, bisoprolol, Losartan, etc.).
After treatment of transient ischemic attack should be sure to pass the stage of recovery.
Primary prevention is aimed at reducing the risk of stroke, secondary - repeated cerebral accident.
About a week after ischemiacerebrovascular passed, the doctor prescribes massage, medical gymnastics, physiotherapy. If necessary, the patient is engaged in a psychologist, a speech therapist. Most important condition for successful rehabilitation - treatment of diseases that attack the brain transient owes.
And forecast the effects of brain disease
Transient ischemic attack hasfavorable prognosis provided timely medical care in a hospital. However, the TIA can be followed again, and in the worst case - lead to a stroke. According to medical statistics, irreversible ischemic disease of the brain after a TIA catches for:
- 2 days - 10% of patients;
- 3 months - 10%;
- 1 year - 20-45%;
- 5 years - 10-15%.
It is necessary to enhance the blood circulation in the brain pools that did not occur transient ischemic attack type. To do this, neurologists recommend:
- control blood pressure;
- quit smoking;
- to minimize the use of salt and alcohol;
- fully fed, eliminating fatty and fried foods, meats, home-made;
- Avoid strong stresses;
- regular sleep;
- keep fit;
- undergo an annual medical check-ups.