Hemorrhagic vasculitis in adults and children. Causes, symptoms and treatment of hemorrhagic vasculitis

The child or adult may unexpectedlyacute inflammation of the blood vessels begin with extensive lesions of the digestive tract, skin, kidneys, joints. The body appears purpura, a disease is officially called vasculitis. It is important to start a conservative treatment, otherwise progressing serious health complications.

What is a hemorrhagic vasculitis

The second name of this diagnosis - illnessHenoch-Schönlein purpura, which begins with the acute stage. Relapse often occurs between the ages of 4-12 years old, it is a serious complication of scarlet fever, tonsillitis, acute respiratory viral infection. In the course of the pathological process capillary wall under the influence of provoking factors become brittle, increasing their permeability. Violated microcirculation, and the chemical composition of biological fluids: the activation of platelets, reducing the concentration of antithrombin, lock activators of fibrinolysis.

On the skin appears vascular net,extensive hematoma formed with fuzzy boundaries. Externally, a hemorrhagic vasculitis resembles allergic reactions. Rheumatic purpura in practice is not common, prone to chronic transformation. There is a reason for the increased propensity to allergic reactions against the backdrop of a lack of blood clotting, there may be other triggers. moreover, in the body there is a violation of vascular hemostasis management, susceptibility to hypercoagulation.

Hemorrhagic vasculitis - ICD 10 code

Hemorrhagic vasculitis in internationalClassification of Diseases (ICD), declared by doctors as allergic purpura. Before putting a definitive diagnosis, showing a complete clinical examination, the implementation of a series of tests. As the disease shows symptoms allergy is an inflammatory etiology, progressive character. The danger is that the pathological process involves not only the cutaneous vessels, and vessels of parenchymal organs. Henoch-Schönlein purpura, on average, affects 25 patients aged 5-14 years by 10 000 people.

Causes of hemorrhagic vasculitis

Without ascertaining the etiology of hemorrhagic vasculitis, it is impossible to achieve complete

patient recovery. Otherwise, the number of attacks only becomes more frequent, and skin rashes are large-scale, there is intoxication of internal organs and systems. Therefore, in order to cure the illness, it is required to find out the main causes of vascular inflammation. It:

  • increased activity of infectious agents;
  • Preventive vaccination (antibody formation);
  • hypothermia;
  • burn disease;
  • congenital lack of the complement system;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • kapillyarotoksikoz during pregnancy;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • food poisoning;
  • upper respiratory tract infection;
  • prolonged exposure to the sun;
  • propensity to allergic reactions;
  • bites of insect pests.

Vasculitis in children

Since the disease often develops in childhoodage, parents should exclude a child from the risk groups, to reduce the risk of the first attack, pay attention to the initial symptoms of hemorrhagic vasculitis. Starting the pathological process, as an allergic reaction to minor skin rash. If it is not stopped, pediatricians do not exclude angioedema, other complications.

Hemorrhagic vasculitis in children begins withsymptoms of general malaise, which are supplemented by acute abdominal pain, a complete lack of appetite, fever, inflammation of the knee and elbow joints. After some time, appear on the skin rashes, symptoms of flushing of the skin. Symptoms of hemorrhagic form of the disease are similar to dermatitis.

Hemorrhagic vasculitis in adults

Patients older generation diseasepredominates is extremely rare, but in the case of recurrence requires a medical diet. In additional hospitalization recommendation of the attending physician is not necessary. Symptomatology expressed softer and abdominal syndrome observed in 50% of affected, thus not accompanied by vomiting, nausea. Hemorrhagic purpura in adults with kidney disease is fraught with the development of renal insufficiency, diffuse glomerulonephritis.

Vasculitis hemorrhagic - Symptoms

It starts with a general hemorrhagic purpuramalaise, which reduces the patient's quality of life. Before vasculitis appears on the skin, can increase the body temperature, there may be signs of SARS. Later, the diagnosis can be differentiated as a specific symptom are large pockets of skin rash. To correctly determine the diagnosis according to ICD, a doctor collects data history, listening to complaints in a particular clinical picture. Most often in hemorrhagic purpura is:

  • articular syndrome;
  • small spotted rash;
  • cutaneous syndrome;
  • myalgia;
  • abdominal syndrome;
  • extensive damage to the kidneys.

In addition, the patient must pay particular attention to such changes in the overall health of the sick child, for example:

  • painful movements;
  • feces mixed with blood;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • dizziness;
  • fainting;
  • bouts of tachycardia;
  • blood in the urine;
  • acute glomerulonephritis.

Hemorrhagic vasculitis - form

Because the disease is systemic showsaction in the body, doctors distinguish its classification in accordance with established standards of ICD. All existing forms of hemorrhagic vasculitis have specific symptoms, so much easier to diagnose the disease. Self-medication and diagnostics in the home is strictly prohibited. According to the etiology of the pathological process distinguish these types of hemorrhagic vasculitis:

  • cutaneous;
  • skin and joints;
  • abdominal;
  • renal;
  • mixed.

For the duration of the inflammatory process, the intensity of symptoms distinguish between such forms of hemorrhagic vasculitis:

  • acute;
  • protracted;
  • chronic.

Vasculitis - stage

Cutaneous hemorrhagic syndrome in the photo leadspatients in horror, so it is best not to bring up complications, eliminate the need for resuscitative measures. It is useful to find out what stage of the disease course, there is manifested in practice as characterized by the predominant clinical picture. Thus, the release:

  • initial stage (mild);
  • moderate stage;
  • severe hemorrhagic vasculitis.

Current hemorrhagic vasculitis

Studying the duration of the pathological process,Doctors allocate another conditional classification, which also characterizes the pathogenesis of rheumatic purpura. So, for hemorrhagic vasculitis includes the following time intervals, which gradually replace each other in the absence of positive dynamics:

  • acute course in which vasculitis progressing throughout the month;
  • subacute disease with a duration of up to 3 months;
  • prolonged when vasculitis is not treated up to six months;
  • relapsing case of systematic repetitions of the acute phase;
  • chronic disease with a history of more than 1.5 years;
  • fulminant course of the disease lasts for less than 5 days, there is only a small child.

Diagnosis of hemorrhagic vasculitis

To determine the characteristic disease in the body,you need a full examination. Diagnosis includes not only instrumental methods, and laboratory research, followed by the implementation of all the recommendations of the expert. So, to put a definitive diagnosis of hemorrhagic vasculitis, you must:

  1. General blood analysis. Jump leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, decreased hemoglobin, red blood cell, neutrophil production by cells of the phagocytic system.
  2. General urine analysis. Particularly relevant in renal syndrome, when there is a secondary activation of proteins.
  3. Blood chemistry. The sharp jump in the concentration of sialic acids, gaptoglobulina, fibrinogen. Optionally, to determine the level of creatinine, cholesterol, uric acid.
  4. Immunological study for the emergence of a pathological process in the body, for the differential diagnosis.
  5. Ultrasound, endoscopic methods and biopsy of the affected organ - as necessary to identify the same multiple microthrombogenesis.

Treatment of hemorrhagic vasculitis

If obvious signs of aseptic inflammation,it is important not to delay the start of intensive care. An integrated approach that includes medications, bed rest and medical diet containing only hypoallergenic food. Folk remedies for hemorrhagic vasculitis have a mediocre action can only be complementary to formal methods.

Before you treat hemorrhagic vasculitis,it is important to understand that this is - necrotizing trombovaskulit, revmovaskulit, gemovaskulit, mikrotrombovaskulit, panangiitis or rheumatic purpura. Only after the final diagnosis the doctor prescribes medicine it is also recommended physiotherapy. When dominates spontaneous remission, it does not mean that you must stop before the deadline intensive care.

Drug treatment of vasculitis

You should start with taking medication. Hemorrhagic vasculitis is treated successfully, if properly matched drugs, ie, they must fully comply with the prevailing clinical picture. Below is a diagram ICU:

  1. Admission enterosorbents to remove toxic products. It Enterosorb medicines, Enterosgel, Polyphepan, activated carbon.
  2. Antiplatelet agents. Needed for improvement of blood microcirculation. When hemorrhagic purpura is Curantil, ticlopidine, Trental.
  3. Anticoagulants to reduce swelling, prevent the formation of blood clots. It Gepatrombin, Heparin.
  4. Corticosteroids are effective in renal and articular syndrome hemorrhagic purpura, relieve inflammation. It Methylprednisolone, Prednisone.
  5. Antibiotic agents to inhibit infectious pathogens in hemorrhagic purpura.
  6. Cytotoxic agents to enhance immunity and prevention of cancer, as a variant of Cyclophosphamide, endoxane.
  7. Immunosuppressive drugs to enhance the immune response of the organism pathogenic flora in hemorrhagic purpura. It Azathioprine, Imuran.
  8. Antihistamines for suppressing external purpura rheumatic symptoms that may occur in acute form. It Tavegil, Suprastin, Supradin.
  9. Membrane to accelerate the regeneration of damaged tissues. This vitamins such as niacin, rutin, tocopherol.
  10. Infusion infusion solutions prepared from biological fluids, such as plasma.
  11. Plasmapheresis.

Vasculitis treatment of folk remedies

Aseptic inflammation can be eliminated by methodsalternative medicine, however, is the treatment of mediocre. It can complement formal methods, to take part in the rehabilitation period. To treatment of vasculitis folk remedies, was as effective as possible, it is recommended to prepare ointment with the following active ingredients of vegetable origin:

Birch buds in an amount of 200 grams mincedon a grater, add the fat nutria so as to obtain a homogeneous composition of a viscous consistency. Infuse in a refrigerator, but in everyday use of rubbing the affected lower limbs, hands, and other manifestations of palpable purpura on the body. This is an effective treatment of systemic vasculitis, which can be supplemented by taking medications expert recommendations.

Diet for vasculitis

Anaphylactoid purpura treated rightPower, therefore, of the daily diet is required to completely eliminate allergic foods. Diet for hemorrhagic vasculitis includes receiving medicinal infusions, but in the daily use of the menu the following products is strictly contraindicated:

  • salt in a large quantity;
  • coffee, alcoholic beverages;
  • hot or cold water, food;
  • any seasonings and spices;
  • foods containing potassium;
  • high-melting fats.

Complications vasculitis

Do not treated promptly diseaseaggravates the clinical picture. Complications of hemorrhagic vasculitis already require immediate hospitalization with resuscitative measures to eliminate from the body a greater concentration of allergens, toxins. Here, what is fraught with aseptic inflammation in a patient at any age:

  • hemorrhagic anemia;
  • Iron-deficiency anemia;
  • perforation of the stomach and intestinal ulcers;
  • bowel obstruction;
  • peritonitis;
  • DIC with thrombocytopenia;
  • pancreatitis;
  • thrombosis, thrombocytopenia;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • cerebral paralysis.

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