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brain Hydrocephalus - what it is. How to treat brain hydrocephalus in adults and children

This is a severe neurological disease knownand how the brain edema. Common name accurately reflects the essence of the disease: the accumulation in the brain cerebrospinal fluid. Hydrocephalus is considered to be mainly a children's pathology, but it strikes adults.

The causes of the disease

Cerebrospinal (spinal or liquor)fluid, generating in the spinal cord enters the brain. She washes his cavity of the ventricles, nourishes them, maintains normal intracranial pressure, protects against infections. However, if the CSF is produced in excessive amounts or outflow occurs with difficulty, the liquid compresses regions of the brain, and they are functioning properly.

brain Hydrocephalus is divided intochildren's and adult forms. In children, the disease is found inborn and a secondary acquired. Congenital hydrocephalus - a dangerous consequence of defects in fetal development. Its causes are rubella, herpes, cytomegalovirus and other infections that the mother had been ill during pregnancy.

Adults are often complicated by hydrocephalus such diseases:

  • stroke;
  • post-traumatic, alcoholic encephalopathy;
  • meningitis, encephalitis, tuberculosis;
  • cancerous brain tumor.

The forms of the disease

Hydrocephalus is diagnosed during ultrasoundthe unborn child, it is easy to identify the newborn, grudnichka or toddler up to 2 years. Acquisition is a disease that has developed in births due to birth trauma, hemorrhage, brain tumors, meningitis, encephalitis. We also have a premature baby risk of becoming a victim of hydrocephalus.

The disease is classified according to the nature andfluid circulation: if the channels of its outflow from the brain are free, it is open hydrocephalus, and if blocked - closed (occlusal). Neokklyuzionnaya disease occurs when the inflow and outflow of CSF from the subarachnoid space (between the shell parts of the brain) is not difficult and there are no signs of hypertensive syndrome.

According to the degree of development of hydrocephalus it is divided into acute, subacute and chronic forms:

  • If from the first signs to the state of decompensation (inability to normal operation) are 3 days - an acute form.
  • If the brain degradation occurs within 3 months - subacute.
  • If the disease develops six months - it may acquire a chronic nature.

internal

brain Hydrocephalus is classified andthe place of accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid. On this basis distinguish internal and external hydrocephalus. The inner form of the disease is detected when the liquor is concentrated only in the lateral ventricles of the brain. Excess liquid head does not affect its shape and size. However, if the ventricles expand sharply, the brain can stop functioning.

external

In this form of hydrocephalus, cerebrospinal fluid accumulatesand around the brain, causing deformation of the cranial bones, headaches, drowsiness, nausea, ghosting, incontinence. However, the most dangerous form of hydrocephalus - moderate external hydrocephalus, asymptomatic. Lack of treatment turns serious breach of cerebral blood flow.

Older people have found replacement formbrain hydrocephalus, in which it is reduced in volume, and form a new space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The ventricles are stretched, the disease progresses. Outdoor replacement hydrocephalus, as a rule - a consequence of a concussion, severe hypertension, atherosclerosis or alcoholism.

mixed

In this form of the pathology of the brain and decreasefilling the new space with liquor is the simultaneous development of internal and external hydrocephalus when fluid accumulates in the ventricles, and under the meninges. In infants, this form appears due to birth trauma or birth defects. It is dangerous because it can quickly lead to a catastrophic failure in the blood supply to the brain tissues.

The main signs and symptoms

Hydrocephalic syndrome is characterized by three mainsigns: loss of coordination of movements, mental health problems and incontinence. Within a few days of the onset of disease human gait is slow, uncertain, shaky. Then the patient more and more difficult to maintain balance. It becomes difficult to move the legs, raise your hands.

Then, frequent urge to urinate, theypass into incontinence. As the progression of hydrocephalus people increasingly falls, and then completely alone can not walk or sit. Finally, severe deviations occur in the psyche. The patient loses the ability to adequately assess the reality, it is difficult to express their thoughts, he raves, fights in convulsions.

adults

In acute occlusive hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure causes:

  • headache;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • increased sleepiness;
  • blurred vision;
  • cardiac, pulmonary insufficiency up to coma and death.

Minor internal asymmetricHydrocephalus is often felt by man as an easy option ailments. Symptoms outer symmetrical hydrocephalus can be headaches, vomiting, and in the later stages - incontinence. For chronic hydrocephalus characterized by memory loss, loss of logical thinking, slurred speech, lethargy. Later, the person ceases to serve themselves.

children

When hydrocephalus brain in newborns and infants most visible symptom - too big head. On a moderate increase in intracranial pressure is indicated by:

  • "Grid" of the veins on his head;
  • advanced fontanels;
  • trembling chin;
  • very pale skin;
  • strabismus;
  • constant crying;
  • cramping hands, feet;
  • vomiting after feeding.

For two years the head of the brain in hydrocephalusceases to increase as fontanels already overgrown. However, over time the child more noticeable lethargy, weakness, muscular system, retarded physical and mental development. As the CSF increased pressure on the structure of the brain, he becomes nervous, worse sleep, often runs into unreasonable tantrums.

Methods of diagnosis

Preliminary diagnosis of hydrocephalus candeliver by examining the ocular fundus of the child, a neonatologist or pediatrician and send it to the neurologist. The picture of the state of the brain in children up to 1.5 years, is still open anterior fontanelle, gives neurosonography. The most informative diagnostic method - tomography of the brain. If necessary, your doctor may prescribe an additional X-rays, echoencephalography.

Hydrocephalus Brain Treatment

Many variants of the disease is curable inform. If children do not provide medical care, they will remain disabled or die. The treatment of brain hydrocephalus is to eliminate its causes. It is important to achieve CSF and venous blood flow. To do this, appoint diuretics and vasodilators, and sometimes the ears put leeches.

If medical treatment after a fewmonths does not work, surgery is needed. Upon expansion of the ventricles in the fetal brain development is being monitored. If hydrocephalus is not progressing, hatched baby before delivery, and neonatal surgery. With the progression of disease at 35 weeks of pregnancy performed a cesarean section and carry out such an operation.

If the brain does not develop hydrocephalus, beginDo massage. It is particularly effective in a tense muscle tone, slow the development of fine motor skills. The diet should contribute to the normalization of water-salt balance. Contraindicated all products that inhibit the excretion of fluids from the body. Under the ban - table salt, sodium gluconate. There should be no fresh bread, fatty meats, sausages, smoked meats, sweets and soda. Needed fruits and vegetables, with the exception of onions, garlic, radishes, radish, sorrel.

drug therapy

When hydrocephalus brain commonly used drugs:

  • diuretics - Diakarb, Mannitol, Lasix, Furosemide;
  • venotoniki - Troxevasin, Glivenol;
  • hormonal - Dexamethasone, Betamethasone, Prednisolone;
  • Painkillers - Ketonal, Nimesil, Treksimed;
  • means providing a sedative, anticonvulsant, sedative effect, - Phenobarbital, Amitai, Nembutal.

Surgical intervention

The most common surgery - bypass surgerybrain to provide drainage of liquor in the other tanks, for example the abdominal, at least - occipital cavity. Catheters are paving the subcutaneous fluid volume control valves. Shunting in brain hydrocephalus saved the lives of millions of children. However, the shunt system - a foreign body, often causing complications. Avoid it can be implanted using a less traumatic endoscopic treatment. With the help of an endoscope in the brain to drain the fluid forms a workaround.

Folk remedies

  1. Diuretic infusion in brain hydrocephalus: 2 teaspoons of cornflower blue flowers pour a glass of boiling water, allow to cool, filter and drink four doses of 50 ml for 15-20 minutes before meals.
  2. Broth, normalizing the acts of urination: 15 g of crushed roots of marsh calamus pour three cups of boiling water, hold water bath for 15 minutes, filter and take 1 tablespoon three times a day for half an hour before meals.
  3. The calming and analgesic tea: 15 grams of lemon balm leaves brewed cup of boiling water, drink 1 tablespoon 3-5 times a day.

And forecast the effects of brain dropsy

According medstatistiki, intellectual levelIQ of about 50% of children treated adequately later than 85 points. Prognosis is more favorable in congenital, rather than in secondary hydrocephalus. Without treatment, children become hysterical, stammering, their brain can degrade up to dementia. Adults often develop psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, hallucinations occur, they are doomed to severe disability.

Prevention of illness

To eliminate the risk of hydrocephalusthe brain, it is very important to avoid during gestation intrauterine infections, injuries, especially generic. In a narrow pelvis, there is other evidence necessary to resort to caesarean section. During the execution of works of increased danger, for example, on construction sites, factories, should be protected head helmet, and in the winter it should not be allowed hypothermia in the cold. Timely need to eliminate pockets of infection in the body.

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