Alzheimer's disease - what is this disease. Reasons for diagnosis and early signs of Alzheimer's disease

This pathology develops in elderly personsage and refers to a progressive type of senile (senile) dementia, leading ultimately to persistent cognitive impairment. Learn about the etiology, clinical presentation, and methods of treatment of psychological disorders.

Alzheimer's Disease - Causes

Medical evidence shows thatmost cases, this type of dementia occurs in people exposed to low active mental activity. Some scientists say that the causes of Alzheimer's disease are rooted in genetic predisposition. The validity of the last remains unclear. Apart from these, there are many theories to explain the causes of how Alzheimer's disease arises - what kind of pathology, and in connection with which it develops is still the subject of scientific discourse.

Importantly, the major risk factorsthis form of psychosocial disorders are considered heredity and aging. According to modern scientific views, the neurodegenerative disease is Alzheimer's develops in the accumulation of protein in the hippocampus and temporal lobes of the brain. This material serves as a building material for the formation of insoluble amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The steady growth of these structures provokes breaking neural connections with the subsequent loss of whole brain.

Alzheimer's Disease - Symptoms

Senile dementia is the mostcommon cause of dementia in the elderly. For the first time the clinical manifestations of disease were described in 1906 by Alois Alzheimer. The illness is often sporadic nature of distributed with late onset. It is important to say that, unfortunately, the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in older people are beginning to manifest itself when destroyed most of the synaptic connections. As a result, the spread of organic amendments on other brain tissue, elderly people have the following states:

  1. Negative - meant the disappearance of a patient previously existing capacity. The presence of these symptoms can be judged by the presence of some of the oddities of human behavior:
  • monosyllabic responses;
  • passive attitude towards life;
  • apathy;
  • depression;
  • agnosia;
  • disorientation;
  • absent-mindedness;
  • abnormal emotional reaction;
  • lethargy;
  • insomnia;
  • problems with the perception of the information received from the outside;
  • difficulties with the implementation of habitual actions;
  1. Positive - involve the acquisition of skills to patients previously not inherent. Such signs of Alzheimer's disease in old age occur in the following conditions:
  • hallucinations;
  • delirium;
  • illusory perception of the world;
  • behavioral deviations;
  • convulsions;
  • paranoia;
  • a state of excitement, anxiety.

The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease at an early stage

The early stages of neuropsychological disorderscharacterized hidden symptoms. Because of this understanding of the issue that is Alzheimer's requires a certain skill. Dementia occurs due to endogenous pathological processes and largely independent of external stimuli. Clinic of the progressive nervous system disease manifests with memory loss, and a distorted perception of the information received from the outside. In general, the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease at an early stage can be expressed in the following syndrome:

  • fatigue;
  • decrease in short-term memory;
  • distracted attention;
  • nervous exhaustion;
  • conflicts;
  • suspicion;
  • violation of goal-setting.

Alzheimer's symptoms in women

In contrast to the stronger sex, the ladies are more pronedevelopment of dementia. This fact have been linked to the inherent emotional women. The process of degenerative brain changes in the fair sex runs very hard. During menopause a woman's body occur hormonal changes that result in reduced activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary system of the brain. Experts identify these early signs of Alzheimer's disease in women:

  • Problems with storing any information;
  • behavioral disorders;
  • inability to perform the most basic activities;
  • depression;
  • tearfulness;
  • apathy;
  • agedoniyu.

Alzheimer's symptoms in men

Among the stronger sex are much less likely to be diagnosedsenile dementia. Recognize the signs of the destruction of the brain in men more complicated. Often strange behavior of head of household is taken as the manifestation of bad temper. Advanced forms of the disease are accompanied by rougher lesions of neural connections, resulting in a worsening of the clinical picture. At the same time the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in men may be accompanied by:

  • irritability;
  • memory loss;
  • apathy;
  • unjustified aggression;
  • inappropriate sexual behavior;
  • pugnacity.

Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

Promptly identify dementia symptomssufficiently hard. The main focus in this area is the collection of patient complaints and medical history. Determination of neuropsychological abnormalities is performed using specially designed questionnaires. Special attention is given to the elimination of other pathological processes that may lead to the destruction of brain tissue. In general, diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease comprising:

  • neurological examination;
  • MRI;
  • Testing of intellectual abilities;
  • blood test.

Stages of Alzheimer's Disease

In the first stage of development of neuropsychologicaldisorders the patient does not suffer from almost any adverse conditions. Meanwhile, even minor violations of short-term memory may indicate predementsii. If the patient has difficulty with social adjustment, self-perception or information received from the outside, there is a question of the degree of severity of the progressive deviations. Depending on how pronounced syndromes are the following stage of Alzheimer's disease:

  1. Early dementia - seen a slight disorder of the intellectual sphere, while maintaining the patient's critical attitude to the problem.
  2. Moderate dementia - is accompanied by a partial loss of long-term memory and some usual household skills.
  3. Severe dementia - implies the disintegration of the personality with the loss of the entire spectrum of cognitive abilities.

Alzheimer's Disease - Treatment

Therapies such degenerative changesbrain aimed at stabilizing the patient's condition and decrease the severity of the clinical picture. Alzheimer's Disease Treatment should be comprehensive and include all necessary measures to remove provoking pathological process of endogenous and exogenous factors. Without fail the therapy aggravate dementia associated pathologies:

  • cardiovascular diseases;
  • diabetes;
  • obesity;
  • anemia;
  • respiratory failure;
  • atherosclerosis.

Drugs in Alzheimer's disease

Currently there is no cure,able to save people from this debilitating condition. Treatment of the disease is palliative. Therapeutic measures help only slightly alleviate the symptoms of organic changes in the brain tissue. Nevertheless, in this area is constantly conducting research to develop effective medication that can prevent and treat senile dementia. Currently prescribed following drugs in Alzheimer's disease:

  • agents that enhance blood circulation in the brain blood vessels (Ginkgo biloba, Nicergoline);
  • nootropics (Cere);
  • neurotransmitters (phosphatidylcholine);
  • dopamine receptor stimulants (Piribedil);
  • acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil);
  • amino acids (carnitine, methionine).

Care of patients with Alzheimer's disease

The progressive destruction of brain cells leadseventually to inappropriate behavior. It should be clearly understood that the cause of all negative aspects is not an old man, and psychological disorder. At the stage of the expanded clinic is extremely important to ensure proper care of Alzheimer's disease. In this regard, family lying patient must constantly carry out his prevention of bedsores. Eating an elderly person should include:

  • fish;
  • liver;
  • a variety of cereals;
  • fruits and vegetables;
  • quality vegetable oils;
  • greenery;
  • nuts.

Prevention of Alzheimer's disease

Experts say that there is noa clearly defined program, which allows to avoid the development of senile dementia. The prevalence of neuropsychological abnormalities in people over 65 years of evidence in favor of the fact that dementia can occur almost everyone. However, to start to care about the health of you must already from a young age. Prevention of Alzheimer's disease comprising:

  • constant mental activity;
  • healthy lifestyle;
  • diet correction;
  • Reading books;
  • Mind games;
  • crossword puzzles;
  • regular communication.

How many are living with Alzheimer's disease

Senile dementia is considered incurablediagnosis. Overall prognosis depends on how Alzheimer's disease occurs. In case of severe dementia disease process affects a significant portion of the brain cells. This eventually leads to a complete reduction of cognitive function. From the moment of diagnosis, the life expectancy of Alzheimer's disease is about 6-7 years. With proper care and treatment, the prognosis is usually less depressing.

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