During the first year of his life, the toddlerManaged to learn. In his vocabulary there are a few simple words - "Mom", "Dad", "Bi-bi," "Meow," "Give." He knows the names of body parts, faces, favorite toys, can be shown on request, discerns intonation of speech, can dance or swing to music. Joyfully responds to the appearance of familiar faces, waves with a pen at parting, sends air kisses, imitates the actions of adults.
Development of a one-year-old child
By this period, its mobility increases andcuriosity. He climbs onto the couch, walks through the rooms, peers into the hidden corners. He can move on all fours, and get up on the legs. He likes to "manage" in the kitchen: open the doors of cabinets, examine the contents of jars and boxes. The kitchen is quite a traumatic place, so one can not leave one in it. By the year the child tries to hold a pencil in his hand, he likes to draw. Therefore, during this period, the first pictures appear on a piece of paper or wallpaper.
Many babies love when they are readBooks, show vivid pictures. If the child does not sit still, you can talk and read with him, when he plays, for example, he collects a pyramid, looks at cubes. Even if he does not pay attention to you visually, he involuntarily absorbs your words like a sponge.
Care for a year-old child
Every day the baby becomes more and moreIndependent. He already drinks himself from the cup, tries to eat with a spoon, even if he does not always get it neatly. The role of parents in caring for a child is to teach them self-service skills, to monitor his regime, nutrition, hygiene, health.
The child, most likely, still does not always ask for a pot. To accelerate this process, it is necessary to plant it on this hygienic "throne" after eating and every hour and a half.
Gradually, he will develop a habit, and if you forget to put him there, he will ask you about it.
The room where the baby is playing and sleeping is necessaryOften ventilate and conduct a wet cleaning. Keep an eye on that there were no drafts, and in the corner of the carpet was laid on the floor. Periodically it is necessary to wash plastic toys with soap. To gradually accustom the child to order, after the game all the toys must be folded into a box or placed on a shelf. In the beginning it should be done together with the baby, then he can manage independently.
Nutrition of a child aged 1 year
The first six months after his birth, the babyEat exclusively breast milk or milk formula. Then in his diet gradually began to introduce vegetable purees, milk kashki, steam cutlets, cookies and other "adult" food. He had his first teeth, he learned to chew. But this does not mean that he is ready to eat food from a common table.
In 1 year food for babies is also necessary to prepareseparately. They serve food in a puree or finely chopped form. In a year the child should already get acquainted with such products as chicken or quail eggs, potatoes, pasta, oats, rice, buckwheat porridges, raw and boiled vegetables and fruits, chopped meat (steam cutlets, baked souffle), bread, butter, dairy Soups. In the diet can be introduced chopped herbs - parsley, dill.
Food is not fried, but cooked, baked for a couple orIs brought to the preparedness in the oven. Solid vegetables and fruits are fed to the child in the garbled form (apples, pears). Bananas, soft pears, can be cut into small pieces, peeling. Cherries, plums, cherries are recommended to be given in a boiled form, in the form of mashed potatoes and compotes.
The stomach of a one-year-old baby is small, but the body needs a lot of energy. Therefore, the child needs to be fed in small portions, but often.
For a day - five times: Breakfast after awakening, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner and milk or kefir with biscuits at night. Approximately six months later, you can switch to four meals a day, refusing to feed before bed. If the child has a bad appetite, bright dishes, napkins or beautifully decorated food in a plate will help him awaken.
Day regimen for a child aged 1 year
Year is the age when you can startTo develop with the child home rituals and traditions, which will accustom him to the regime. They will give him a sense of permanence, will reassure and adjust to certain actions. For example, he will normally perceive that after a night's sleep it is necessary to clean the teeth, to do exercises. Repeat them at the same time for a long period. For example, in a crib, before going to bed, read a book or kiss at night.
If the baby does not like to sleep during the day, after waking upHe must do something nice - to feed a delicious afternoon tea, give sweetness, play with it, allow a little playful. Knowing that after sleep he is waiting for something interesting, he will quickly fit into the crib and fall asleep.
Do not set the mode, as in the pioneerCamp and paint the day of the baby by the minute. Look at his mood, well-being, sometimes you can move away from the planned schedule. The regime must be adjusted as the baby grows up. Enter additional points and remove those that have lost relevance. For example, increase the time for walking, playing games, reducing the duration of a day's sleep, etc. The main thing is to follow the sequence - sleep, wakefulness, play, food and keep the intervals between the feedings - about 3-4 hours. Obeying the regime of the day, the child will have enough time for rest and wakefulness. He will be less tired, and capricious.
Classes with a one-year-old child
During this period, the child is very fond ofJoint actions with adults, tries to help them and repeats movements - sweeps, vacuums, stirs food. He gets acquainted with the environment. He is interested in how the lights turn on, the phone rings, music plays. He can make the same actions several times. For example, click the switch, watching the light bulb, or press the buttons of the remote from the TV. He analyzes and tries to figure out how this works. Do not deny him the pleasure.
During joint activities, talk withHim, for example, when you put on a baby. Ask to pull out the handle, raise the foot, bend the head. He willingly helps to dress himself. At this age it is possible to accustom the child to neatness - to substitute a spout or mouth under a napkin or a handkerchief. Pull out the handles to wash them.
At this time, the baby is easily trained. Therefore, acquaint him with the world, explaining and telling us with available phrases and words, how it works, why it happens, how to behave in different situations. You can see the rain through the window, look at the moving cars, people walking.
Do not worry, even if the kid does not speak yet, he understands and understands many things.
Already at this age you can introduce the baby to possible dangers - to show that the needle is pricked, it hurts, and the water is very hot, so you can get burned.
Games and toys for children
Even if a child has a lot of toys - dolls,Bunnies, bears, clowns, children's dishes, he still does not know how to play with them. He perceives them simply as objects. Therefore, he needs to show how to feed the doll, how to rock it and cradle it, to put it to bed. He can be asked to regret and stroke a plush kitten or bunny, because it hurts him, his paw hurts. Thus develops the ability to compassion.
To develop logical thinking, by the year you canBuy toys such as pyramid, cubes, balls of different sizes and colors. The Kid loves to play with them, trying with a focused look to string rings on the pin of the pyramid or to stick a round ball into the square hole. And it is not necessary that he will do everything right the first time. Quite the contrary. Gently push it in the right direction, explaining how and why you need to act this way.
To develop a small motor skills in a childFingers, you can start playing with him in the simplest games-poteshki - for example, "Soroku-crow". Curl and massage each finger, saying what the magpie should do. You can put a piece of soft plasticine in his hand, and show how you can crumple it in your fist or pinch it off with a finger. You can pour in a box of croup - a manga, millet and let the baby play. Let him collect it into fists or let it pass through his fingers. Do not scold him, if the grain is poured onto the floor, it can be vacuumed in a couple of minutes.
Medical supervision for a one-year-old child
Since birth, the baby is under observationDoctors. Basically, this is a district pediatrician and a nurse who followed his physical development - height, weight, vaccinations. Now the kid has grown up, he does not need a monthly observation, only one visit will be enough in two months.
In order not to miss possible deviations inState of health, he is recommended to make ultrasound of the hip joints, abdominal cavity, brain and pass individual medical specialists. In a year it must be shown to the orthopedic surgeon, ophthalmologist, neuropathologist, otolaryngologist. It is advisable to vaccinate against rubella, measles, mumps, and pass a general analysis of urine and blood.
Useful tips for parents
If your child does not speak for a year, do notGet upset and take this fact to heart. He will certainly speak, only a little later. All children are different and expect absolutely identical results from them. Much depends on the temperament of the child, his individual characteristics and other factors. Therefore, if the neighbor in the sandbox Vasya speaks almost in verse, and your Andryusha or Tanechka knows only two words, it does not matter. This does not reflect mental abilities, and does not affect future grades at school.
Do not wind yourself and do not demand the impossible from the child. Be patient and continue to educate and develop further.
Remember that in a year your nonsense fidget is at increased risk. So do not leave it for a minute.
It is necessary to raise brittle vases and figurines to the top, so that the baby does not break them and is not injured, hide small and sharp objects, medicines, and close the electrical outlets with plugs.